2D distinct element modeling of the structure and growth of normal faults in multilayer sequences : 2. Impact of confining pressure and strength contrast on fault zone growth and geometry

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dc.contributor.author Schöpfer, Martin P. J.
dc.contributor.author Childs, Conrad
dc.contributor.author Walsh, John J.
dc.date.accessioned 2011-07-22T13:43:48Z
dc.date.available 2011-07-22T13:43:48Z
dc.date.copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union. en
dc.date.issued 2007
dc.identifier.citation Journal of Geophysical Research en
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10197/3034
dc.description.abstract The growth of normal faults in periodically layered sequences with varying strength contrast and at varying confining pressure is modeled using the Distinct Element Method. The normal faulting models are comprised of strong layers (bonded particles) and weak layers (non-bonded particles) that are deformed using a predefined fault at the base of the sequence. The model results suggest that faults in sequences with high strength contrast at low confining pressure are highly segmented due to different types of failure (extension vs. shear failure) in the different layers. The degree of segmentation decreases as the strength contrast decreases and confining pressure increases. Faults at low confining pressure localize as extension (Mode I) fractures within the strong layers and are later linked via shallow dipping faults in the weak ones. This leads to initial staircase geometries that, with increasing displacement, cause space problems that are later resolved by splaying and segmentation. As confining pressure increases the modeled faults show a transition from extension to hybrid and to shear fracture and an associated decrease in fault refraction, with a consequent decrease in fault surface irregularities. Therefore the mode of fracture, which is active in the strong layers of a mechanical multilayer at a particular confining pressure, exerts an important control on the final fault geometry. en
dc.description.sponsorship Irish Research Council for Science, Engineering and Technology en
dc.format.extent 3300982 bytes
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher American Geophysical Union en
dc.subject Faults en
dc.subject Modelling en
dc.subject Multilayer en
dc.subject Confining pressure en
dc.subject Strength en
dc.subject.lcsh Faults (Geology)--Mathematical models en
dc.subject.lcsh Fault zones--Mathematical models en
dc.subject.lcsh Rock deformation--Mathematical models en
dc.title 2D distinct element modeling of the structure and growth of normal faults in multilayer sequences : 2. Impact of confining pressure and strength contrast on fault zone growth and geometry en
dc.title.alternative Two-dimensional distinct element modeling of the structure and growth of normal faults in multilayer sequence en
dc.type Journal Article en
dc.internal.availability Full text available en
dc.internal.webversions Publisher's version en
dc.internal.webversions http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006JB004903 en
dc.status Peer reviewed en
dc.identifier.volume 112 en
dc.identifier.issue B10404 en
dc.identifier.doi 10.1029/2006JB004903
dc.neeo.contributor Schöpfer|Martin P. J.|aut| en
dc.neeo.contributor Childs|Conrad|aut| en
dc.neeo.contributor Walsh|John J.|aut| en
dc.description.othersponsorship Enterprise Ireland en


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